六盘水-- Liu Pan Shui (aka the poorest city in China-- as described by a popular guide book) is an industrial outpost from an era where state sponsored communist factories were strategically set up after 1949 (the founding of the modern nation-state of China) in terretories that used to be loyal to the Nationalist and the Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. Now with the nationalist "contained" on the island of Taiwan and a burgeoning economy based on principle in opositions to Mao's central planning enacted by Deng Xiaoping in 1979 shortly after Mao's death, these frontier town like Liu Pan Shui are left with fallout which would top the worlds worst polluted city in 9 of 10 categories. The water is so bad that menthol contaminates the bottled water just to cover up what couldn't be distilled out in the filtering. At least the people are smiling...